This is an APA Style Guide for the most commonly used citations formats from the APA Manual, 6th Ed.
APA Manual 6th Ed.
This LibGuide is divided into five parts.
Home Page: Information to in-text citation and quotation formats. (See below)
Reference List: Correct formats for your sources in your Reference List.
Formatting your Paper: APA formats for your entire paper.
Beginning your Research
APA Exposed from Harvard University is an excellent video to view.
In Text Citation & Quotation Formats
You have found your information and you have paraphrased the ideas and want to cite it in your paper; then use these formats for your in text citations.
- Anonymous or unknown author: After your text use: (Short Title, year)
- Example: Correct running shoes are important (Running shoes, 2006) Shorten the title to the first two or three words.
- Within the sentence: Running shoes (2006) are...
- One author: After the text use: (Author, year).
- Example:....running shoes (Smith, 2007).
- Within the sentence: Author (year) Example: According to Smith (2006), running shoes......
- Two authors: After the text use: (Author1 & Author2, year)
- ....running shoes (Smith & Davis, 2007).
- Within the sentence: Author1 and Author 2 (year) Example: According to Smith and Davis (2007), running shoes......
- Three – five authors: When citing after the text for the first time: (Author1, Author2, & Author3, year).
- Running shoes need to fit your foot perfectly (Smith, Davis, & Nelson, 2008).
- If you cite these authors again in your paper at the end of the text use: (Author1 et al., year) The perfect fit is hard to find (Smith et al., 2008).
- To cite within a sentence: Author1, Author2, and Author3 (year) Example: Smith, Davis, and Nelson (2008) found that..
- If you cite them again within a sentence use: Author1 et al. (year) Example: Smith et al. (2008) found that.......
- Six or more authors: After the text use: (Author1 et al., year).
- Example: Within a sentence use: Author1 et al. (year) ..For six or more authors, use et al. The full citation will be found in the reference list.
- If no date is give use n.d. in place of the year.
You have found your information and you want to quote it directly in your paper. Use the above directions but add the page number and quotation marks for the quotation. Use only for quotations under 40 words.
- Example: (Author, year, p.no): "Your sentence", (Smith, 2007, p.6). If the quote is found on more that one page use: (Author, 2007, pp.6-12)
- Example: Smith (2007) found "that running shoes need to fit perfectly" (p.6).
- For quotations over 40 words: use a block quotation. In your paper, from your left margin, tab in twice; type your quotation--no quotation marks are necessary; double spaced, at the end of the quotation cite your source. (Author, date, pp. no)
- Example next:
- This is the start of your quotation and it goes on for more than 40 words. At the end of the quotation you will place your citation information. (Smith, 2007, pp. 2-3)
Secondary Reference: To cite a source that you found cited in an article.
- Give the secondary source in the reference list; in the text, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source.
- In-text example: in Good's study(as cited in Smith, 2006), he states..........
- In the Reference List: Smith, A. A. (2006). Title of article. Title of Journal, vol#(issue#), pp. 4-9.
- Use the DOI at the end or Retrieved from if necessary--depending on where and how you found the article.
In the APA Manual 6th ed., find more information in Chapter 6, pages 169-192.
Find quick reference for in text citations and quotations at these web sites:
Information Literacy/Reference Librarian
Reference Coordinator, Collection Development Coordinator, & Circulation Coordinator
Clarion Online Outreach Librarian
Toll Free! 866-272-5612 Press #5
Clarion University of PA
Clarion, PA 16214